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USDA Agricultural Research Service
Alaska fish processing byproducts

 

Alaska fish processing byproducts
Partnership between USDA/ARS and UAF at FITC
Sept 2009 to Sept 2014

ARS
            P. Bechtel, ARS, Food Technologist, Lead Scientist
            Vacant, ARS, Engineer
Non-ARS
            S. Smiley, UAF PI, University Alaska Fairbanks, Fisheries Scientist
            A. Oliveira, University Alaska Fairbanks, Lipid Chemist
            Q. FONG, University Alaska Fairbanks, Seafood Economist
            D-F. DENG, Oceanic Institute, Aquaculture Nutritionist
            W. Dominy, Oceanic Institute, Feed Manufacturing Technology
            R. Hardy, University Idaho, Aquaculture Nutritionist

INTRODUCTION
Since 1999 the Fishery Industrial Technology Center division of the School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences – University of Alaska Fairbanks has had a funded research project with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) division of USDA to study converting the byproducts of seafood processing in Alaska into aquacultural feed ingredients and human foods. Originally an annual earmark from Congress, the project has grown to be included in the base budget of ARS. Since 2009, the project has been in its third five year iteration.

In the first five years, the project focused on the characterization of the four co-products made from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts: Fish Protein Meal, Fish Bone Meal, Fish Oil and Fish Solubles or Stickwater. The characterization included chemical properties, physical properties and nutritional properties as assayed in rainbow trout (Hagerman Fish Culture Lab., Univ. Idaho) shrimp and warm water marine fish (Oceanic Institute, Hawaii).

The second five-year program focused on deeper analyses of components of the waste stream itself including analysis of specific fatty acids such as the two very abundant Omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Other research involved fish meals made from Whitefish Viscera, Salmon Livers and Salmon Testes. Salmon liver meal showed promise as a feed ingredient in shrimp aquaculture because of its high levels of cholesterol, while salmon testes meal apparently has high levels of anabolic steroids.

Currently, the project is in its third five-year Specific Cooperative Agreement (SCA) and research has focused to finer scale problems including economic optimization of enzyme hydrolysis operations to handle processing waste, bio-fuel issues as well as composting and making fertilizers. In addition the manufacture of testes meals is competing for raw materials with human food markets in Asia. The isolation of fish gelatin, a lower melting temperature food ingredient than commercial gelatin obtained from mammal sources, is a growing program in a number of the processors.

Below we will outline some of the aspects of this project.


OBJECTIVES
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing byproducts as food and feed ingredients in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three listed objectives.

Objective 1.
Develop new and improved feed ingredients and high value human food products using fish processing co-products.

Objective 2.
Develop economical processes and methods for the collection, stabilization and storage of raw seafood byproducts to optimize their chemical, nutritional, and physical qualities for uses including food and feed ingredients, fertilizers and bio-chemicals.

Objective 3.
Develop ingredients from fish processing co-products that meet larval and stage specific physiological requirements of marine fish when used in modern dietary formulations.

NARRATIVE
Under three logical objectives we have assembled nine flexible subprojects to further our research into increasing the value of the processing waste derived from Alaska’s seafood industry. Overriding goals for this five-year plan are to develop the feed ingredients to supplement plant protein based dietary formulations while also increasing the value as well as the utilization of fish processing byproducts as both feed and food ingredients. Where available data allows, we will work with aquaculturists to develop specific ingredients for defined life history stage formulations. Where it is not yet available we will work with them to produce the relevant data.

Our choices for specific projects are based on conversations with our collaborators and industry, the probability of success and our analysis of their importance. The Alaska seafood industry is complex, secretive and highly competitive, still they are our partners in this endeavor. In part to serve their needs we have included projects that fall within our subprojects’ purview and yet do not seem immediately connected to other more obvious research activities. In fact, the work proposed here is a complicated mixture covering basic research that is years from commercial application, research that is almost immediately applicable, and research the seafood and aquaculture industries have been requesting for some time.

Scientists working on this research project will develop new product forms, such as protein and oil-based feed and food ingredients from fish processing byproducts. Ingredients with enhanced health benefits such as long chain omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamins can also be produced from these byproducts. Economical methods will be developed for the collection, preservation, and storage of products made from fish processing waste. Efforts to improve the utilization of byproducts and reduce the total loss of important marine protein and oil supplies will improve production efficiency and promote environmental responsibility. Other potential feed ingredients to be evaluated include products from fish processing and plant based oils as a substitute or partial substitute for fish oil, especially in marine carnivorous fish diets. Work in this project will also characterize underutilized marine protein and lipids for use in animal diets, since proper nutrient intake enhances growth, reproduction, disease resistance, and carcass quality.

The ARS, the University of Alaska and other partners have been cooperating to increase utilization of Alaska fish byproducts. Much progress has been made and achievements from the current project are the basis for this new action plan. Pivotal questions need answers: How can current processes used in the processing of byproduct be modified to enhance the value of this application as feed ingredients? What unique chemical, physical, and functional properties of byproducts can be exploited to make novel ingredients and other products? Are there other ingredients that could be produced and marketed from these byproducts such as gelatins, binders, attractants, and stimulants? What is the economic viability and projected impact of such modifications, including proposed new products?
In this project the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) in cooperation with the University of Alaska Fairbanks Fishery Industrial Technology Center (FITC) and their team of nationally recognized scientists and research institutions at the Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, University of Idaho (UI) and The Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii have designed a project to address these questions. ARS and FITC scientists characterize chemical and physical properties of processing byproducts and byproducts. ARS, FITC, UI, and OI scientists identify and develop higher valued products that can be derived from these byproducts. Feeds incorporating derived byproducts have been formulated, manufactured and nutritionally tested at UI and OI. This project falls under National Program 106 (Aquaculture) and has particular relevance to the program component including Problem Statements 5D: Improve Product Quality and Develop New Products and 3B: Evaluate the Nutritional Value of Alternative Sources of Protein and Lipid Problem.
The overall benefit of this project will be the increased utilization of byproducts from the Alaska commercial seafood industry to improve its profitability, environmental compatibility, and economic growth. Numerous benefits are expected, including scientific, environmental and economic ones.

Scientific benefits to include:
1) identify essential nutrients from seafood byproducts for diets of cultured animals
2)develop new ingredient and feed processing techniques
3)develop novel products increasing farming efficiency and fish production.
Environmental benefits to include:
1) reduce impacts of discarded processing byproducts through increased utilization,
2) develop environmentally benign ingredients tailored to specific farming systems and reduce the use of both fish meals and fish oils made from whole (industrial) fish.
Economic benefits to include:
1) increase the use of domestic seafood processing byproducts as feed ingredients
2) reduce animal feeding costs - increasing profitability for U.S. farmers
3)increase export of aquaculture feed ingredients derived from byproducts
4)optimize economic opportunities, through job creation by identifying cost effective ingredient manufacturing processes and applications.


An important product is the new knowledge gained about the chemical, physical, and functional properties of these processing byproducts. New and/or improved feed ingredients are being developed from byproducts. In addition, improved processes, procedures, and methods to enhance the value and utilization of byproducts are being developed. Knowledge gained about the suitability of these byproducts in aquaculture feeds as well as dietary uses for other animals has been generated. Results are published in peer-reviewed journals; presentations are made at meetings, conferences and workshops; a 4th international conference on fish byproduct utilization will be held; working relations will be strengthened through cooperative efforts with the Alaska-based fishing industry; and the web page will be periodically updated for information dissemination. Customers of new and/or improved ingredient and associated feeds include commercial manufacturers of feeds for aquaculture, livestock and pets, feed equipment manufacturers, and feed ingredient suppliers. Customers also include scientists involved in studies on animal nutrition and byproduct utilization,

Government Agencies
USDA
NOAA fisheries - NMFS
EPA
Alaska Department of Fish and Game - ADF&G
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation - ADEC
Alaska Department of Community & Economic Development - ADCED
Univ. Alaska’s Cooperative Extension Service - CES
Univ. Alaska’s Marine Advisory Program - MAP
Seafood Companies
Alaska Fresh Seafoods
Alaska General Seafoods
Alaska Protein Recovery
Alyeska Seafoods
Icicle Seafoods
International Seafoods of Alaska
Kodiak Fishmeal Co
North Pacific Seafoods (Marubeni)
Ocean Beauty Seafoods
Ocean Phoenix Mothership
Peter Pan Seafoods (Maruha Nichiro)
Trident Seafoods,
Westward Seafoods (Maruha Nichiro)
Unisea Inc (Nippon Suisan)
Fishing Fleet Owners Associations
Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation - AFDF
At Sea Processors
National Food Processors Association - NFPA
Pacific Seafood Processors Association - PSPA
West Coast Seafood Processors Association
Bering Sea Fisherman’s Association
CDQ corporations.

Prior Project Accomplishments 2004-2009
CRIS Project Title: Converting Alaska fish byproducts into value added ingredients and products.

1. Alaska Fish Protein Meal Quality
The chemical and nutritive quality of Alaskan byproduct fish meals was tested. The quality of these meals was indistinguishable from commercial meals for shrimp and, with one exception, in formulations for Pacific threadfin and rainbow trout. Alaskan fish meals are equivalent to high quality commercial meals when used in aquacultural feed formulations. Selected Alaskan fish meals were screened for pesticides and PCBs, but detectable levels were not found. Feeding trials indicated that Alaskan pollock and salmon oils could replace menhaden oil in shrimp diets. Alaskan fish meals with stickwater (aqueous solubles) added during manufacture were examined. The optimum levels of added stickwater were determined for multiple species. Alaskan fish meals are made from different processing byproducts and have properties different from meals made with whole fish. The physical and nutritional properties of five different batches of Alaska white fish meals were evaluated and found to be relatively consistent. To expand the dissemination of the project’s results, international Symposia were held in Anchorage AK in November 2002, and Portland OR in February 2009 where a number of the project research results were presented. The Symposium in Portland OR was attended by over 80 people from a number of countries including a very large representation from the Alaskan seafood industry. Impacts included demonstrations of: quality improvement in products derived from byproducts; increased awareness of the high quality of Alaskan protein meals and, increased awareness of industry concerns by project scientists. An edited book from the 2002 symposium is available and the edited book from the 2009 symposium will be available in late 2009.

2. Byproducts from Different Fish Species
All feed ingredients developed in this project have been derived from processing byproducts from fish harvested for human food. These ingredients are designed predominately for use in aquaculture and agriculture. Our chemical and nutritional characterizations document the quality of Alaskan fish meals compared with meals made from whole industrial fish. We evaluated the properties of individual processing byproducts (heads, frames, viscera and skin) from the major harvested species. However little is known about these properties from other commercial species. We evaluated the properties of the oils and protein from, arrow tooth flounder, halibut, black cod and Pacific Ocean perch. Protein from their byproducts was high quality. Interestingly, the oil extracted from black cod contained lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to most other cold water fish.

3. Energy and Fertilizers from Fish Byproducts
In Alaska there is potential to increasing recovery of fish oil from salmon byproducts. Studies indicate Alaska salmon oil can be converted to bio-diesel fuels. Salmon oil bio-diesel had properties comparable to bio-diesel derived from vegetable oils. Results suggest that salmon oil from fish-processing waste could be a viable source for bio-diesel fuel production.

Fish protein meal, fish bone meal, and byproduct hydrolysates can be used as fertilizers although fertilizers and composts are among the lowest value products that can be made from fish processing waste. Processing byproducts are rich in nitrogen and can be used as a nutrient source in crop production. Studies show the amount of mineral N released in 56-day incubation was similar for all three – fish protein meal, fish bone meal and fish hydrolysates. An exponential model was suitable for simulating N release, and was validated by the field incubation results. A multi year study of different fertilizer application rates on crop yields is in progress.

4. Feed Ingredient for Pets, Pigs and Reindeer
The nutritive quality of fishmeals, hydrolysates and specialty meals made from fish livers have been tested as feed ingredients in the swine, companion animal and Alaskan reindeer industries. Byproduct hydrolysates were evaluated and found to be suitable as replacements for a portion of plasma protein in early-weaned piglet diets. Alaskan fishmeals and hydrolysates have also been evaluated as ingredients in the diets of companion animals. Although priced competitively, the effect of fishmeal on the performance of reindeer was unknown. Soybean and fishmeals were compared as dietary protein sources for reindeer growth performance, feed efficiency and ultimate meat quality. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or most meat quality attributes; however, feed efficiency was improved with the fish based diets.

5. Gelatins from Fish Skins
Alaskan fish skins are either reduced to fishmeal or discarded. Studies were conducted to increase the value of fish skins, including; dehydration as a stabilization method; improved extraction of gelatin; and chemical cross-linking of the gelatin. Glutaraldehyde proved to be more effective as a cross-linker than genipin. Films made from fish-skin gelatins demonstrated reduced oxygen permeability while providing increased water vapor barrier properties. These studies have identified unique properties of cold-water fish-skin gelatins with potential application to other food products. Lysozyme, a food-safe antimicrobial protein, was incorporated into fish-skin gelatin films and gels, and the antimicrobial properties evaluated. Results indicated both films and gels retained the lysozyme activity.

6. Hydrolysates from Byproducts
Hydrolysate technology can offer small, remote and seasonal fish processors a potentially cost effective method to handle their wastes streams, but a better understanding of enzyme hydrolysis methods is needed to improve the nutritional quality of the end products. Studies on hydrolysis of red salmon heads demonstrated that different enzymes and different incubation times influence the extent of the hydrolysis reaction that determines average peptide length as well as other nutritional properties. The yields of fish oils were also influenced by these manipulations. Enzyme hydrolysates were made from processing byproducts of the most abundantly harvested Alaskan species were characterized chemically and physically and sent off for ongoing nutritional analysis with our collaborators. These studies showed that enzyme hydrolysis is a viable lower cost option for effectively handling these processing byproducts. Results describing the chemical and physical properties of hydrolysates have been disseminated to the industry. This work has been of special interest to small, remote seasonal salmon processors that lack the investment capital required to employ advanced mechanical methods of making fish protein meals and oils from their processing byproducts.


7. Oils from Fish Byproducts
Lipids from processing byproducts have been characterized including lipid classes and fatty acids were identified. Studies have provided the lipid information needed for further utilization of byproducts as feed ingredients. The chemical properties of these oils have been disseminated to industry and consultants. Cold water marine fish tend to have higher omega-3 content than many warm water fish. Oils from the major Alaska species rank near the top with omega-3 fatty acids accounting for 20 percent or more of total triacylglycerols fatty acid levels. Livers from seven harvested species were collected and the composition of their oils determined. Lipid content ranged from 3.3 to 50.3 percent and the percent of long chain 3-omega fatty acids varied between different species. These differences could enable development of unique ingredients, allowing producers to target specific markets. Recovery of high quality oil from fish livers is feasible and the oils can be used to supplement pet and livestock diets, as well as for human consumption.

The demand for salmon oil is increasing, as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids gain recognition for their unusual human health benefits. Studies have provided direction for the handling and storage to retain the maximum levels of high-value n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

8. Protein Powders from Byproducts
Alaskan byproducts are made into fish meal or discarded; however, there is the potential to extract specific protein mixtures from byproducts that could have superior physical properties and a greater value in the market place. Two methods have been used to extract proteins from these byproducts. Soluble protein powders have potential uses as food and feed ingredients. Feed ingredients with different chemical and functional properties can be made from the insoluble and soluble protein fractions of different pollock byproducts.

9. Protein Meals from Livers, Roe and Testes
The fish processing waste stream contains substantial quantities of livers and these can easily be separated from other byproducts. Liver samples had variable quantities of lipid and distinct fatty acid profiles, which can be used for the development of specialized feed ingredients. Salmon livers have relatively high lipid and cholesterol levels and in females, relatively high concentrations of vitellogenin. A method was developed for processing fish livers into protein meals, which were then characterized. These meals had high cholesterol content useful in formulating shrimp diets. Partially purified vitellogenin may possibly be used as a feed augmentation ingredient for younger fish. There has been significant interest from European feed manufacturers in these meals. Meals can be made from testes, previously referred to as spawn powder, and large amounts of fresh raw testes are available from the processing of pollock and salmon in Alaska. Development of methods for the production of high quality testes meal have been completed and the products characterized.

10. Solubles from Fish Meal Processing
Over one million metric tons of byproduct is produced each year from fish harvested in Alaska; however, much of this protein is not used. During fish meal manufacturing the soluble protein fraction, called stickwater, is often discarded. The composition and properties of this soluble protein have been chemically and nutritionally characterized. In dried samples ~25 % of the considerable protein content was from connective tissue. Stickwater derived from the processing byproducts contains all the soluble molecules, and may have value in diets as a palatability enhancers, attractant and growth enhancer. The value of fish solubles from stickwater results have not only been disseminated to industry but led to a commercial installation of a membrane recovery system.

11. Stabilizing fish processing byproducts
The evaluation of acidification as a preservation method for salmon byproducts has been conducted. Byproduct components were stabilized through fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and through ensilage by direct acidification using formic acid. Stable silage pHs were maintained for 120 days, although lipid and protein quality decreased. The effects of storage temperature and time on raw pink salmon and pollock byproducts were evaluated. Delay in processing byproducts into meals degrades quality in a time and temperature dependent manner. A detection method for determining biogenic amines was developed with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI/MS) that may be a more selective and sensitive detection method.

Longer storage of raw byproducts resulted in higher vitamin A levels in extracted crude oils. Fat soluble vitamins are essential in the proper maintenance and function of biological systems and fish oil is considered a good source. A method was developed for the detection of fat soluble vitamins in fish oils with high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to APCI/MS. The effects of storage time, temperature and ethoxyquin on fat soluble vitamins in crude commercial fish oil were examined. While ethoxyquin did reduce oxidative damage to the fish oils it did not protect the fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins decreased with storage time and higher storage temperatures.

Listing of Refereed Publications Resulting from Project:
Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Olsen, CW., Olson, DA., Chiou, B., Yee, E., Bechtel, PJ.& McHugh, TH. 2006. Water vapor permeability of mammalian and fish gelatin films. J. Food Sci. 71: E202-E207.
Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Properties of Stick Water from Fish Processing Byproducts. J. Aquatic Food Prod. Tech. 14(2): 25-38.
Bechtel PJ. & Oliveira ACM. 2006. Chemical characterization of liver lipid and protein from cold water fish species. J. Food Sci. 71 (6): S1-S6.
Bechtel, PJ., Chantarachoti J., Oliveira, ACM. & Sathivel, S. 2007 Composition of immature Alaska walleye pollock roe (Theragra chalcogramma). J. Food Sci. 72: S338-S343.
Bechtel, PJ., & Johnson, R. 2004. Nutritional properties of pollock, cod, and salmon processing byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. Vol. 13(2): 125-142 (2004)
Bechtel, PJ, Morey, A., Oliveira, ACM., Wu, TH., Plante, S. & Bower, CK. 2010. Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus) Whole Fish and Byproducts. J. Food Processing and Preservation 34: 55-71
Bower, CK., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Olsen, CW, McHugh, TH. & Bechtel, PJ. 2006. Characterization of fish skin gelatin gels and films containing the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme. J. Food Sci.71 (5): M141-M145.
Bower, CK. & Hietala, KA. 2008. Acidification Methods for Stabilization and Storage of Salmon Byproducts. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17: 459-478.
Bower, CK., Hietala, KA., Oliveira, ACM. & Wu. TH. 2009. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). J. Food Sci. 74: C248-257.
Bower, CK., Malemute, CL., & Oliveira, ACM. 2007. Preservation methods for retaining n-3 PUFAs in salmon products. J. Aquatic Food Product Technology. 16(4): 45-54.
Bower, CK., Malemute, CM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2009. Endogenous protease activity in byproducts of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). J. Food Biochem. (In press)
Chiou, B., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Shey, J., Yee, E., Bechtel, PJ., Imam, SH., Glenn, GM. & Orts, WJ. 2006. Rheological properties of cross-linked fish gelatins. Polymer 47: 6379-6386.
Chiou, BS., El-Mashad, HM., Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Dunn, RO., Bechtel, PJ., McHugh, TH., Imam, SH., Glenn, GM., Orts, WJ. & Zhang, R. 2008. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil. Transactions America Society Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 51(3): 797-802.
Crapo, C., Oliveira, ACM., Nguyen, D., Bechtel, PJ. & Fong, Q. 2010. Development of a method to produce freeze dried cubes from three Pacific salmon species J. Food Sci. 75:E269-275.
Desantos, FA., Bechtel, P., Smiley, S. & Brewer, MS. 2010. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products. J. Food Sci. 75(4): S231- S236.
Desantos, FA., Lakshmanan, R., Bechtel, P., Smiley, S. & Brewer, MS. 2010. Effect of salmon type and presence / absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products. J. Food Sci. 75: S279-S285.
El-Mashad, HM., Zhang, R. & Avena-Bustillo, RJ. 2008. A two-step process for biodiesel production from salmon oil. Biosystems Engineering. 99: 220-227.
Epp, MA., 2002. Stable isotopes in shrimp aquaculture. World Aquaculture. 33: 18-19.
Epp, MA., 2002. Carbon and nitrogen flows in a zero-water exchange shrimp culture: inferences using stable isotope tracers. Ph.D. Dissertation. School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 181 pps.
Faber, TA., Bechtel, PJ., Hernot, DC., Parsons, CM., Swanson, KS., Smiley, S. & Fahey, GC. 2010. Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian, and ileally cannulated dog assays. Journal Animal Science. 88: 1421-1432.
Finstad, G., Wiklund, E., Long, K., Rinker, PJ., Oliveira, ACM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2007. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) – effects on animal performance and meat quality. Rangifer 27(1): 59-75.
Folador, JF., Karr-Lilienthal, LK., Parsons, CM., Bauer, LL., Utterback, PL., Schasteen, CS., Bechtel, PJ. & Fahey, JC. Jr. 2006. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods. J. Animal Sci. 84: 2752-2765.
Forster, I., Babbitt, JK. & Smiley, S. 2004. Nutritional quality of fish meals made from byproducts of the Alaska fishing industry in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). J. Aquatic Food Product Tech. 13:115-123.
Forster, I., Babbitt, JK. & Smiley, S. 2005. Comparison of the nutritional quality of fish meals made from byproducts of the Alaska fishing industry in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). J. World Aquaculture Soc. 36 (4): 530-537.
Hardy, RW., 2000. Fish protein hydrolysates as components in feeds. Aquaculture Magazine. 26(5): 62-66.
Hardy, RW., 2001. Alternatives to fish oil. Aquaculture Magazine. 27(4): 49-54.
Hardy, RW., Sealey, WM. & Gatlin, DM. III. 2005. Fisheries by-catch and byproduct meals as protein sources for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J. World Aquaculture Society. 36(3): 393-400.
Hardy, RW., 2003. Seafood processing byproduct conference. Aquaculture Magazine 22(1): 59-62.
Hardy, RW., Higgs, DA., Lall, SP., & Tacon, AGJ., 2001. Alternative dietary protein and lipid sources for sustainable production of salmonids. Fisken og Havet Nr. 8-2001. Institute of Marine Research (Havforskningsinstituttet), Bergen, Norway.
Hardy, RW., Sealey, WM., & Gatlin, DM. III., 2005. Fisheries bycatch and byproduct meals as a protein sources for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. World Aquaculture Soc, 36(3)
Herrmann, M., Xu, P., Dong, LC., Fong, QS.& Crapo C. 2005. A conjoint analysis for wild Alaska salmon protein concentrates in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing. 12(1): 57-86.
Imam, SH., Chiou, B., Wood, DF., Shey, J., Glenn, GM., Orts, WJ., Narayan, RR., Avena-Bustillos, R., McHugh, TH., Pantoja, A. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Starch/Pulp-fiber based packaging foams and cast films containing Alaskan fish byproducts (waste). BioResources: 3(3): 758-773.
Lee, KJ., Powell, MS., Barrows, FT, Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Hardy, RW. 2010. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaskan seafood processing byproduct and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 302: 248-255.
Li, P., Wang, X., Hardy, RW. & Gatlin III, DM. 2004. Nutritional value of fisheries by-catch and byproduct meal in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture. 236: 485-496.
Lin, M., Cavinato, AG., Mayes, DM., Smiley, S., Huang, Y., Al-Holy, M. & Rasco, BA. 2003. Bruise detection in Pacific pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) by visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy (600-1100 nm). Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry. 51: 6404-6408.
Nadarajah, K., Prinyawiwatkul, W., No, HK., & Sathivel, S., 2006. Sorption behavior of crawfish chitosan films as affected by chitosan extraction processes and film casting solvents. J. Food Science. 71(2): E033-039.
Obaldo, LG., Kamarei, AR., & Huang, AS. 2004. Sensory qualities of aquacultured amberjack. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(1): 21-22
Oliveira, ACM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Lipid composition of Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) byproducts. J. Aquat. Food Prod Tech. 14(1): 73-91.
Oliveira, ACM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2006. Lipid analysis of fillets from Giant Grenadier (Albatrossia pectoralis), Arrowtooth Flounder (Atherestes stomias), Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) & Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). J. Muscle Foods. 17: 20-33.
Oliveria, ACM. and Bechtel, PJ. 2006. Lipid content and composition of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) livers. J. Aquatic Food Tech. 15 (3): 5-19.
Oliveira, ACM., Bechtel , PJ., Morey, A. & Demir, N. 2009. Composition of Heads and Livers of Yelloweye Rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) Harvested in Alaska J. Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18: 53-66.
Oliveira, AC., Hoffert, J., & Bechtel, PJ., 2005. Lipid composition of Alaskan pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) by-products. Food Technologists Institute. 14:73-91
Oliveira, ACM., Stone, DAJ., Plante, S., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ., & Hardy, RW., 2008. Fish Oils from Alaskan Seafood Processing By-products: An unexploited sustainable resource for Aquaculture. World Aquaculture. 39(2): 50-51 & 69.
Pu, J., Bechtel, PJ. & Sathivel, S. 2010. Lipid oxidation and degradation rates of shrimp astaxanthin. Biosystems Engineering. 10: 1-8.
Plante, S., Smiley, S., Oliveira, ACM., Stone, DAJ., Hardy, RW. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Chemical characterization of testes meals made from Alaska’s seafood processing byproducts. J Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(2): 195-211.
Rathbone, CK., Babbitt, JK., Dong, FM. & Hardy, RW. 2001. Performance of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fed diets containing meals from fish wastes, deboned fish wastes, or skin-and-bone by-product as the protein ingredient. J. World Aquaculture Society.32(1): 21-29.
Reppond, K., Oliveira, ACM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2009. Recovery and Characterization of Lipids from Enzymatic Digestion of Fish Eye and Brain Tissue. J. Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18: 209-222.
Sathivel, S. 2005. Thermal and Flow Properties of oils from salmon heads. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82: 147–151.
Sathivel, S. 2005. Chitosan and protein coatings affect yield, moisture loss and lipid oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Fillets During Frozen Storage. J. Food Sci. 70: E455-E459.
Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2006. Properties of soluble protein powders from pollock. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41: 520-529
Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. A Comparison of physical and rheological properties of arrowtooth flounder protein made using three different extraction processes. J. Food Biochemistry. 32: 557-575.
Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P., Babbitt, J., Smiley, S., Crapo, C., Reppond, K. & Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2003. Biochemical and functional properties of herring (Clupea harengus) byproduct hydrolysates. Journal Food Science 88(7): 2196-2200.
Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W. and Negulescu, I. 2005. Functional, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Alaska White Fish Meal Made from Processing Byproducts. J. Aquatic Food Tech. 14(4): 5-22.
Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, JK., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Negulescu, I. & Reppond, KD. 2004. Properties of protein powders from arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and herring (Clupea harengus) byproduct. J. Ag Food Chem. 52: 5040-5046.
Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ., Babbitt, J., Prinyawiwatkul, W. & Patterson, M. 2005. Functional, nutritional, and rheological properties of protein powders from Arrowtooth Flounder and their application in mayonnaise. J. Food Sci. 70:57-63.
Sathivel, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Prinyawiwatkul, W. 2006. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Salmon Protein Powders. Int. J. Food Engineering. 2:2, Article 3. http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol2/iss2/art3.
Sathivel, S., Huang, J. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Properties of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) skin hydrolysates and effects on lipid oxidation of skinless pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during 4 months of frozen storage. J. Food Biochemistry. 32: 247-263.
Sathivel, S., Huang, J., & Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2008. Thermal properties and applications of the Arrhenius equation for evaluating viscosity and oxidation rates of unrefined pollock oil. Journal of Food Engineering. 84:187-193.
Sathivel, S., Liu, Q., Huang, J., &. Prinyawiwatkul, W., 2007. The influence of chitosan glazing on the quality of skinless pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fillets during frozen storage. Journal of Food Engineering. 83:366-373.


Sathivel, S., Smiley, S., Prinyawiwatkul, W. & Bechtel, PJ. 2005. Functional and nutritional properties of red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enzymatic hydrolysates. J. Food Sci. 70: 401-406.
Sathivel, S., Yin, H., Bechtel, PJ. & King, JM. 2009. Physical and Nutritional Properties of Spray Dried Protein Powders from Catfish Roe and its Application in an Emulsion System. J. Food Engineering. 95: 76-81.
Sugiura, SH., Babbitt, JK., Dong, FM., Hardy, RW., 2002. Utilization of fish and animal by-product meals in low-pollution feeds for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research. 31(7): 585-593.
Stine, J., Pedersen, L., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Recovery and utilization of protein derived from surimi wash water. Journal Food Quality (in press)
Stone DAJ., Oliveira ACM., Ross, CF., Plante S., Smiley S., Bechtel, PJ. & Hardy, RW. 2010. The effect of phase-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) canola oil and Alaskan pollock oil on the fillet fatty acid composition and sensory attributes. J. Aquaculture Nutrition. No. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00792.x
Stone DAJ., Oliveira ACM., Plante S., Smiley S., Bechtel, PJ. & Hardy, RW. 2010. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in poultry fat phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils. J. Aquaculture Nutrition. no. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00790.x
Vester Boler, BM., Faber, TA., Bauer, LL., Swanson, KS., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Fahey, GC. 2010. Fish proteins are no more satiating than mammalian or avian proteins in dogs. Journal Nutrition (in press).
Wan, Y., Bechtel, PJ. & Sathivel, S. 2011. Rheological and nutritional properties of baby food containing microencapsulated menhaden oil and menhaden oil (Brevoortia tyrannus) WT Food Science and Technology. 44: 576-581.
Wiklund, E., Finstad, G., Johansson, L., Aguiar, G. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Composition, yield and quality characteristics of electrically stimulated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) carcasses. Meat Science. 78(3): 185-193.
Wu, TH. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Ammonia, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide from raw and processed fish byproducts. J. Aquatic Food Product Technology. 17(1), 27-38.
Wu, TH. & Bechtel, PJ. 2008. Salmon byproduct storage and oil extraction. Food Chemistry. 111: 868-871.
Wu, TH. & Bechtel, PJ. 2009. PJ Effects of storage time, temperature and ethoxyquin on the stability of fat soluble vitamins in commercial crude white byproduct oil. J. Am. Oil Chem Soc. 86:903-908.
Wu. TH., Bechtel, PJ. & Bower, CK. 2009. Effects of storage time and temperature on the quality of raw and processed fish meal from pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) heads and viscera. J. Aquatic Food Product Technology. 18(4): 345-359.
Wu, TH., Nigg, JD., Stine, JJ. and Bechtel, PJ. 2011. Nutritional and chemical composition of fractions produced from wet reduction of separated salmon heads and viscera. J. Aquatic Food Product Technology 20:2 .
Wu, TH., Stine, JJ. & Bechtel, PJ. 2011. Preliminary chemical and nutritional characterization of liver from longnose skates (Raja rhina). J. Food Composition. Doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2010.09.014


Yin, H., Pu, J., Wan, Y., Sathivel, S. & Bechtel P.J. 2010. Rheological and functional properties of catfish skin hydrolysate. J. Food Sci. 75(6): E11-17.
Zhang, M., Sparrow, SD., Bechtel, PJ. & Pantoja A. 2007. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus release from fish meals and fish hydrolysate in subarctic soils. J. Environ. Monitoring and Rest. 3: 264-277.

Edited Books
Bechtel, PJ. (ed.) 2003. Advances in Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Alaska Sea Grant College Program University of Alaska Fairbanks. 559 pages.
Bechtel, PJ. & Smiley. S. (eds.) 2010. A Sustainable Future: Fish Processing Byproducts 2009 Conference Proceedings. Alaska Sean Grant College Program University of Alaska Fairbanks. 330 pages.

Book Chapters
Avena-Bustillos, RJ., Chiou, BS., Olsen, CW., Bechtel, PJ. & McHugh, TH. 2010. Physical and chemical properties of pollock and salmon skin gelatin films. Pp. 281-294. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Bechtel, PJ. 2007. Byproducts from seafood processing for aquaculture and animal feeds. Pp. 435-449. In: MAXIMIZING THE VALUE OF MARINE BYPRODUCTS. (Shahidi, F. ed.). CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge, CB1 6AH, UK.
Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Enhancing Utilization of Alaska Fish Processing Byproduct Parts. Pp. 105-114. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Crapo, C. & Bechtel, PJ. 2003. Utilization of Alaska’s seafood processing byproducts. Pp. 109-121. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Forster, IP. 2008. Use of fisheries co-products in feeds for aquatic animals. Pp. 117-131. In: ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SOURCES IN AQUACULTURE DIETS. (Lim, C., Webster, CD. & Lee, CS eds.). Haworth Food & Agricultural Products Press, New York and London. 626 pps.
Finstad, G., Bucki, C., Aguiar, G. Wiklund, E. & Bechtel, P.J. 2010. Alaskan Fish Byproducts as a Feed Ingredient for Reindeer. Pp. 73-86. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Forster, I., Babbitt JK. & Smiley, S. 2003. Nutritional quality of Alaska white fish meals made with different levels of hydrolyzed stickwater in Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Pp. 169-174. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Forster, IP., 2008. Use of fisheries co-products in feeds for aquatic animals. Pp. 117-131. In: ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SOURCES IN AQUACULTURE DIETS. (Lim, C., Webster, CD., & Lee, CS., eds.). Haworth Food & Agricultural Products Press. New York. 626 pps.


Hardy, RW., 2003 Marine byproducts for aquaculture use. Pp. 141-152. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Hardy, RW., & Tacon, AGJ., 2002. Fish meal – historical uses, production trends and future outlook for sustainable supplies. In: SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE. (Stickney, RR., ed.) CABI Publishing Co.
Johnson, RP., Nicklason, PM., & Barnett, HJ., 2003. Macro- and micronutrient composition of fish bone derived from Alaskan fish meal processing: exploring possible uses for fish bone meal. Pp. 201-218. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Ju, ZY., Forster, IP., Deng, DF., Dominy, WG., Smiley, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Aquaculture Research.
Marsh, L. and Bechtel, PJ. 2009. Waste (Byproduct) Utilization. In: THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY. Flick, G., Martin, R. & Granata, LA. eds. ISUP, Inc. Blackwell Publishing
Oliveira, ACM., Lapis, TJ., Popp, T., Himelbloom, B., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ., & Crapo, CA. 2010. Surveying the chemical composition and oxidative stability of Alaskan commercial salmon oils. Pp. 241-258. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Pedersen, LD., Crapo, C., Babbitt, J. & Smiley, S. 2003. Membrane Filtration of Stickwater. Pp. 359-369. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Pedersen, LD., Smiley, S., Bechtel, PJ. & Spengler, C. 2010. Stickwater Processing by Membrane Filtration. Pp. 121-131. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., Smiley S. & Bechtel PJ. 2006. Production and characterization of a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) liver meal and of dried powders from stickwaters. Pp. 413-418. In: SEAFOOD RESEARCH FROM FIASH TO DISH. Luten, J., Jacobsen, C., Bekaert, K., Saebo, A. & Oehlenschlager, J. eds. Wageninger Academic Publishers. Wageninger, The Netherlands. 567 pps.
Plante, S., Smiley, S., Oliveira, ACM., & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Methods for Drying Stickwater. Pp. 133-146. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Sathivel, S. & Bechtel, PJ. 2007. Engineering and Functional Properties of Protein Powders from Underutilized Marine Fish and Byproducts. Pp. 250-257. In: MAXIMIZING THE VALUE OF MARINE BYPRODUCTS. Shahidi, F. ed. Woodhead Publishing Limited Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge, UK.
Sathivel, S., Yin, H., Wan, Y., Pu, J., Bechtel, PJ., & King, JM. 2010. Functional Proteins from Catfish Roe. Pp. 67-72. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.


Smiley, S., Babbitt, J., Divakaran, S., Forster, I. & Oliveira, ACM. 2003. Analysis of groundfish meals made in Alaska. Pp. 431-454. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Smiley, S., Demir, N., Oliveira, ACM. & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Characterization of Dried Heads from Five Pacific Salmon Species, Dried at Different Temperatures. Pp. 55-66. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Smiley, S., Plante, S., Oliveira, ACM., & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Composition of Hydrolysate Meals Made from Alaskan Pollock, Salmon and Flatfish Processing Byproducts: Comparisons with Traditional Alaskan Fish Meals. Pp. 265-280. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Stine, JJ., Wu, TH., Oliveira, ACM. & Smiley, S. 2010. Extraction and Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate from Fish Processing Byproducts. Pp. 41-53. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Tacon, AGJ., 2003. Growing Requirements for Fish Meals and Fish Oil. pp. 27-42. In: ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD BYPRODUCTS: 2002 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Bechtel, PJ. (ed.). Alaska Sea Grant UAF. 556 pps.
Wu TH. & Bechtel, PJ. 2010 Storage effects on pink salmon processing byproducts. Pp. 161-176. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.
Zhang, M., Sparrow, S., Pantoja, A. & Bechtel, PJ. 2010. Crop Nutrient Recovery from Applied Fish Coproducts. Pp. 87-104. In: A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS. SYMPOSIUM FEB. 2009, PORTLAND, OR, USA. Alaska Sea Grant, UAF, Fairbanks AK. 333 pps.

 

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