faculty listing

A Photo of  William Smoker

Contact Information

Fisheries Division
303 Lena Point bldg.
17101 Point Lena Loop Rd
UAF Fisheries Division
Juneau, AK 99801-8344
Phone: (907) 796-5452
Fax: (907) 796-5447

William Smoker Professor Emeritus

Fish and Fisheries Genetics • Fisheries and Conservation • Fisheries Genetics and Aquaculture


  • • Chair, Fisheries Standards Committee (Conformance Criteria Committee), Alaska Responsible Fishery Management Program, Alaska Seafood Marketing Ins
  • Alaska Hatchery Research Project Science Panel. 2011


  • Fishery sustainability certification.


  • B.A. 1967 Carleton College (Biology)
  • M.S. 1969 Oregon State University (Oceanography)
  • Ph.D. 1981 Oregon State University (Fisheries)

Research Overview

Biology and conservation of Pacific salmon, particularly related to the use of hatcheries to enhance salmon fisheries. Use of quantitative genetic experiments to study empirically the local adaptation of salmon populations. Technology of hatchery production.

Current Research Projects

  • Outbreeding depression in pink salmon: Effects of hybridization between seasonally distinct subpopulations


  • Independent Scientific Review Panel
    he Independent Scientific Review Panel reviews projects proposed to be funded through the portion of the Bonneville Power Administration's annual fish and wildlife budget that implements the Council's Columbia River Basin.
  • Hatchery Scientific Review Group
    The Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG) is the independent scientific panel established and funded by Congress to provide an autonomous and credible evaluation of hatchery reform as part of the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project. The objective of the HSRG is to assemble, organize, and apply the best available scientific information and to provide guidance to the policymakers and technical staff who are implementing hatchery reform.
  • Prince William Sound Aquaculture Corporation
    PWSAC is a private non-profit corporation founded in 1974 by a local commercial fishermen's organization. The purpose of the corporation is to optimize the value of the salmon resources produced in Prince William Sound for all user groups. With headquarters in Cordova, Alaska, PWSAC operates four remote salmon hatcheries in Prince William Sound and one on the Copper River system in Paxson.
  • Sitka Sound Science Center
    The Sitka Sound Science Center is dedicated to increasing understanding and awareness of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the Gulf of Alaska through education and research.
  • Fisheries Standards Committee, Alaska Responsible Fishery Management Program
    THE ALASKA RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT (RFM) PROGRAM: A MODEL BASED ON THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO) The Alaska RFM Certification Program is a voluntary and internationally accredited certification assessment of whether an Alaska fishery is responsibly managed based on strict criteria.
  • Alaska Hatchery Research Program
    Long-term multifaceted research into interactions of hatchery-produced and wild salmon, particularly chum and pink salmon in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska


Manhard, C. V., J. E. Joyce, W. W. Smoker, and A. J. Gharrett. 2017. Ecological factors influencing lifetime productivity of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in an Alaskan stream. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Early online. https://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2016-0335

Anthony J Gharrett, **John E Joyce and William W Smoker. Fine-scale temporal adaptation within a salmonid population: mechanism and consequences. Molecular Ecology (2013) 22, 4457–4469.

Dion S. Oxman, William W. Smoker and Anthony J. Gharrett. Developmental progression of gill rakers as a post-hatch developmental marker in pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Environmental Biology of Fishes 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10641-012-0058-6Online First™

Sturdevant M, Fergusson E, Hillgruber N, Reese C, Orsi J, Focht R, Wertheimer A, Smoker B. 2011. Lack of trophic competition among wild and hatchery juvenile chum salmon during early marine residence in Taku Inlet, Southeast Alaska. Environmental Biology of Fishes 91: 16 pgs.

*Tyler H Dann, W.W. Smoker, J.J. Hard, A.J. Gharrett. 2010. Outbreeding depression after two generations of hybridizing southeast Alaska coho salmon populations? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 139:1292-1305. DOI: 10.1577/T09-203.1

Carl Reese, Nicola Hillgruber, Molly Sturdevant, Alex Wertheimer, William Smoker, Rick Focht. 2009. Spatial and temporal distribution of wild and hatchery chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Taku Inlet, Alaska. Fishery Bulletin 107:433-450.

**Stan P. Triebenbach, William W. Smoker, Brian R. Beckman, Rick Focht. 2009. Compensatory growth following winter food deprivation in hatchery produced coho salmon and Chinook salmon smolts. North American Journal of Aquaculture.71:384-399.

*Oxman, DS; Smoker, WW; Hagen, P; Gharrett AJ. 2007. Genetic, environmental and outbreeding effects on development rate and otolith formation in pink salmon from Auke Creek, Juneau, Alaska, Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 272, S298 p.

*Ivan A. Wang, *Sara E. Gilk, William W. Smoker & Anthony J. Gharrett. Outbreeding effect on embryo development in hybrids of allopatric salmon populations, a potential consequence of stock translocation. 2007. Aquaculture 272S1:S152-S160.

*Harold J. Geiger, *Ivan Wang, **Pat Malecha, **Kyle Hebert, William W. Smoker, and A.J. Gharrett. 2007. What causes variability in pink salmon family size? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:1688-1698.

** Wessell, M., W.W. Smoker, R. Fagen, J.E. Joyce. 2006. Differences in agonistic behavior between juveniles in a hatchery population of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juveniles derived from its source population. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63(2): 438-447

*Wang, I.A., *Erica H. Leder, William W. Smoker & Anthony J. Gharrett. 2006. Timing of development during epiboly in embryos of second-generation crosses and backcrosses between odd- and even-broodyear pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 75(3): 325-332. DOI 10.1007/s10641-006-0015-3.

**Wessell, M., W.W. Smoker, J.E. Joyce. 2006. Differences in juvenile morphology between a hatchery population of Chinook salmon and their founding stock. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society;135:333–340.

** Rodgveller, C.J., W.W. Smoker, A.K. Gray, J.E. Joyce, and A.J. Gharrett. 2005. Effects of inbreeding and family origin on size of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fry. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin. 11(2):73–81.

Smoker, W.W., I.A. Wang, A.J. Gharrett, J.J. Hard. 2004. Embryo survival and smolt to adult survival in second-generation outbred coho salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 65 (Supplement A): 254–262. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2004.00550.

Alex C. Wertheimer, William R. Heard, J. M. Maselko and William W. Smoker. 2004. Relationship of size at return with environmental variation, large-scale enhancement, and productivity of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Does size matter? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14: 321–334. DOI 10.1007/s11160-004-2942-4

*Gilk, S.E., *I.A. Wang, *C.L. Hoover, W.W. Smoker, S.G. Taylor, A.K.Gray, and A.J. Gharrett. 2004. Outbreeding depression between spatially separated pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) populations: Marine survival, homing ability, and variability in family size. Environmental Biology of Fishes 69:287-298.

**Granath, Karla L., W.W. Smoker, A.J. Gharrett and Jeffrey J. Hard. 2004. Effects on embryo development time and survival of intercrossing three geographically separate stocks of southeast Alaska coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Environmental Biology of Fishes 69:299-306.

Wertheimer, A. C., W.W. Smoker and W. R. Heard. 2004. Effects of hatchery releases and environmental variation on wild-stock productivity: consequences for sea ranching of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Chapter 23, pp 307-326 In K. M. Leber, S. Kitada, T. Svasand & H. L. Blankenship, editors. Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching 2d Edition, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.

Gharrett, A.J., *I.A. Wang, W.W. Smoker, *S.E. Gilk, S.G. Taylor. 2002. Preliminary tests of outbreeding depression in hybrids between spatially separated pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) populations. (Abstract, Genetics in Aquaculture VII, J.A.H. Benzie and G. Hulata, eds). Aquaculture 204:206.

Wertheimer, A.C., W.W. Smoker, T.L. Joyce, and W.R. Heard. 2001. Comment: a review of the hatchery programs for pink salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:712-720.

Smoker, W.W., A.J. Gharrett, M.S. Stekoll, and S.G. Taylor. 2000. Genetic variation of fecundity and egg size in anadromous pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 7:44-50.