faculty listing

A Photo of  Bodil Bluhm

Contact Information

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology
Faculty for Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics
9037 Tromsø

Phone: () 011 +47 776 4438

Bodil Bluhm Affiliate Faculty

Biological Oceanography • Marine Biology • Marine Invertebrates


  • Benthic and sea ice community ecology and biodiversity
  • Trophic interactions and population dynamics of polar marine invertebrates
  • Arctic ecosystem synthesis
  • Arctic shelf and deep sea habitats


  • M.S. 1997 University of Kiel (Zoology)
  • Ph.D. 2000 Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Marine Biology)

Office Hours

Mon, Wed, Fri 10-11 am

Research Overview

I have a strong interest in community ecology, biodiversity and population dynamics of benthic and sea ice-associated fauna. My research also focuses on coupling processes between the benthic, pelagic and sea ice realms in the Arctic through carbon flux and trophic interactions. Moreover, I contribute to Arctic data synthesis efforts and consider it important to aggregate historic data sources and make them available online.

Current Research Projects



Bluhm BA, Gradinger R, Kwasniewski S, Poulin M, Sandulli R. Chapter 2.2.1 Arctic ice flora and fauna. In: Węsławski JM, Stempniewicz L, Masłowski W (eds) The new face of the Arctic: The polar marine ecosystem in transformation. Cambridge University Press, submitted

Nelson RJ, Ashjian C, Bluhm B, Conlan K, Gradinger R, Grebmeier J, Hill V, Hopcroft R, Hunt B, Joo H, Kirchman D, Kosobokova K, Lee S, Li W, Lovejoy C, Poulin M, Sherr E, Young K (2013) Biodiversity and biogeography of the lower trophic fauna of the Pacific Arctic region – sensitivities to climate change. In: Grebmeier JM, Maslowski W, Zhao J (eds) The Pacific Arctic sector: status and trends. pp 269-336

Josefson AB, Mokievsky V (lead authors), Bergman M, Blicher ME, Bluhm B, Cochrane S, Denisenko NV, Hasemann C, Jørgensen LL, Klages M, Schewe I, Sejr MK, Soltwedel T, Weslawski JM, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk (contributing authors) (2013) Marine invertebrates. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment - Status and Trends in Biodiversity in the Arctic. CAFF Working Group of the Arctic Council. Chapter 8, Marine invertebrates.

Michel C, Rice J (lead authors), Bluhm B, Duarte C, Galucci V, Gaston T, Gordillo FJL, Gradinger R, Hopcroft R, Jensen N, Mustonen T, Nielsen TG, Niemi A, Skjoldal HR (contributing authors) (2013) Arctic Biodiversity Assessment - Status and Trends in Biodiversity in the Arctic. CAFF Working Group of the Arctic Council. Chapter - Arctic Marine Ecosystems.

Bluhm BA, Grebmeier JM, Archambault P, Blicher M, Guðmundsson G, Iken K, Lindal Jørgensen L, Mokievsky V (2012) Benthos. Arctic Report Card: Update for 2012. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/index.html

Michel C, Bluhm B, Gallucci V, Gaston T, Gordillo FJL, Gradinger R, Hopcroft R, Jensen N, Mustonen T, Niemi A, Nielsen TG (2012) Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change. Biodiversity 13:200‑214

McConnell B, Gradinger R, Iken K, Bluhm BA (2012) Growth rates of juvenile Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from Chukchi Sea fast ice. Polar Biology 35:1487‑1494

Hondolero D, Bluhm BA, Iken K (2012) Caloric content of dominant benthic species from the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas: historical comparisons and the effects of preservation. Polar Biology 35:637‑644

Bluhm BA, Grebmeier JM (2011) Biodiversity – status and trends of benthic organisms. Arctic Report Card: Update for 2011. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/report11/biodiv_benthic_organisms.html

Bluhm BA, Gebruk AV, Gradinger R, Hopcroft RR, Huettmann F, Kosobokova KN, Sirenko SI, Weslawski JM (2011) Arctic marine biodiversity – an update of species richness and examples of biodiversity change. Oceanography 24:232‑248

Bluhm BA, Ambrose Jr WG, Bergmann M, Clough LM, Gebruk AV, Hasemann C, Iken K, Klages M, MacDonald IR, Renaud PE, Schewe I, Soltwedel T, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M (2011) Diversity of the Arctic deep-sea benthos. Marine Biodiversity 41:87‑107

Bluhm BA, Gradinger R, Hopcroft RR (2011) Editorial – Arctic Ocean Diversity: synthesis. Marine Biodiversity 41:1‑4

Kovacs KM, Michel C (lead authors), Bluhm B, Gaston T, Gradinger R, Hunt G, Moore SE, Renaud P, Rysgaard S (contributing authors) (2011). Climate Change and the Cryosphere: Snow, Water, Ice, and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) - An Arctic Council 'Cryosphere Project' in Cooperation with IASC, CliC and IPY. Chapter 3 - Biological Impacts of Changes to Sea Ice in the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. http://amap.no/swipa/

Piepenburg D, Archambault P, Ambrose WG Jr, Blanchard A, Bluhm BA, Carroll ML, Conlan K, Cusson M, Feder HM, Grebmeier JM, Jewett SC, Lévesque M , Petryashev VV, Sejr MK, Sirenko B, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M (2011) Towards a pan-Arctic inventory of the species diversity of the macro- and megabenthic fauna of the Arctic shelf seas. Marine Biodiversity 41:51‑70

Sharma J, Baguley J, Bluhm BA, Rowe G (2011) Do meio- and macrobenthic nematodes differ in community composition and body weight trends with depth? PLoS ONE 6(1): e14491

Sharma J, Bluhm BA (2011) Diversity of Free-Living Nematodes from Macrobenthos in the Arctic Deep-sea Canada Basin. Marine Biodiversity 41:455‑465

Gradinger R, Bluhm BA, Hopcroft RR, Gebruk A, Kosobokova , Sirenko B, Węsławski JM (2010) Chapter 10. Marine life in the Arctic. In: MacIntyre A (ed) Life in the world's ocean: diversity, distribution, abundance. Wiley‑Blackwell, pp 183‑202

Bluhm BA, Iken K, Hopcroft RR (2010) Observations and exploration of the Arctic's Canada Basin and the Chukchi Sea: The Hidden Ocean and RUSALCA expeditions (editorial). Deep‑Sea Research II 57:1‑4

Bluhm BA, Gradinger RR, Schnack-Schiel SB (2010) Sea ice meio- and macrofauna. In: Thomas D, Dieckmann G (eds) Sea ice. 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 357‑394

Bluhm B, Watts D, Huettmann F (2010) Free database availability, metadata and the Internet: an example of two high latitude components of the Census of Marine Life. In: Huettmann F, Cushman S.A. (eds) Spatial complexity, informatics and wildlife conservation. Springer, Tokyo, pp 233‑244

Gradinger R, Bluhm BA (2010) Timing of ice algal grazing by the Arctic nearshore benhic amphipod Onisimus litoralis. Arctic 63:355‑358

Gradinger R, Bluhm B, Iken K (2010) Arctic sea ice ridges – safe havens for sea ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt? Deep-Sea Research II 57:86‑95

Iken K, Bluhm BA, Dunton K (2010) Benthic food web structure serves as indicator of water mass properties in the southern Chukchi Sea. Deep-Sea Research II 57:71-85

MacDonald IR, Bluhm BA (shared 1st authorship), Iken K, Gagaev S, Strong S (2010) Benthic macrofaunal and megafaunal assemblages in the Arctic deep-sea Canada Basin. Deep-Sea Research II 57:136‑152

Merill T, Konar B, Bluhm BA (2010) A temporal comparison of a benthic infaunal community southwest of St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea between 2006 and 1970-1974. Polar Biology 33:1439‑1444

Wei C-K, Rowe GT, Escobar-Briones E, Boetius A, Soltwedel T, Caley MJ, Soliman Y, Huettmann F, Qu F, Yu Z, Pitcher CR, Haedrich RL, Wicksten MK, Rex MA, Baguley JG, Sharma J, Danovaro R, MacDonald IR, Nunnally CC, Deming JW, Montagna P, Lévesque M, Weslawski JM, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Ingole BS, Bett BJ, Yool A, Bluhm BA, Iken K, Narayanaswamy BE (2010) Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15323

Bluhm BA, Iken K, Mincks SL, Sirenko BI, Holladay BA (2009) Community structure of epibenthic megafauna in the Chukchi Sea. Aquatic Biology 7:269‑293

Gradinger R, Bluhm BA (2009) Assessment of the abundance and diversity of sea ice biota. In: Eicken H, Gradinger R, Salganek M, Shirasawa K, Perovich D, Leppäranta M (eds) Handbook on field techniques in sea ice research (a sea ice system services approach). University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, pp 283‑300

Gradinger R, Kaufman MR, Bluhm BA (2009) The pivotal role of sea ice sediments for the seasonal development of near-shore Arctic fast ice biota. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394:49‑63

Piepenburg D, Bluhm BA (2009) Arctic seafloor life, glasnost and climate change. In: Hempel G, Hempel I (eds) Biological studies in polar oceans – exploration of life in icy waters. Wirtschaftsverlag N.W., pp 133‑142

Sirenko BI, Bluhm BA, Iken K, Crane K, Gladish V (2009) Some results of investigation of composition and trophic groups of zoobenthos in the Chukchi Sea. Explorations of the Fauna of the Seas 64(72):200‑212

Bluhm BA, Gradinger R (2008) Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals. Ecological Applications 18 suppl: 77‑96

Bluhm BA, Gradinger R, Hüttmann F, Hopcroft RR, Gebruk A, Sirenko BI (2008) Arctic Ocean Diversity – A Census of Marine Life project in the Arctic. Biologie in Unserer Zeit 38:40‑49 (in German)

Kaufman MR, Gradinger RR, Bluhm BA, O'Brien DM (2008) Using stable isotopes to assess carbon and nitrogen turnover in the Arctic sympagic amphipod Onisimus litoralis. Oecologia 158:11‑22

Piraino S, Bluhm BA, Gradinger R, Boero F (2008) Sympagohydra tuuli gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) a cool hydroid from the Arctic sea ice. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of United Kingdom 88:1637‑1641

Bluhm BA, Coyle CO, Konar B, Highsmith RC (2007) High gray whale densities at an oceanographic front in the south-central Chukchi Sea in 2003. Deep-Sea Research II 54:2919‑2933

Coyle KO, Bluhm BA, Konar B, Blanchard A, Highsmith RC (2007) Amphipod prey of gray whales in the northern Bering Sea: changes in biomass and distribution. Deep-Sea Research II 54:2906‑2918

Bluhm BA, Gradinger R, Piraino S (2007) First record of sympagic hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) in Arctic coastal fast ice. Polar Biology 30:1557‑1563

Gradinger R, Bluhm BA (2006) Life in the crystal palace: flora and fauna of the Arctic sea ice. In Hempel H, Schiel S (eds) Life in the oceans – an ecological reader. Hauschild Verlag, in German, pp 39‑47

Highsmith RC, Coyle KO, Bluhm BA, Konar B (2006) Gray Whales in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. In Estes J, DeMaster DP, Doak DF, Williams TM, Brownell RL (eds) Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems. UC Press, pp 303‑313

Bluhm BA, MacDonald IR, Debenham C, Iken K (2005) Macro- and megabenthic communities in the high Arctic Canada Basin: initial findings. Polar Biology 28:218‑231

Gradinger R, Bluhm B (2005) Arctic Ocean Exploration 2002 (editorial). Polar Biology 28:169‑170

Gradinger R, Meiners K, Plumley G, Zhang Q, Bluhm BA (2005) Abundance and composition of the sea ice meiofauna in off-shore pack ice of the Beaufort Gyre in summer 2002 and 2003. Polar Biology 28:171‑181

Iken K, Bluhm BA, Gradinger R (2005) Food web structure in the high Arctic Canada Basin: evidence from δ13C and δ15N analysis. Polar Biology 28:238‑249

Gradinger RR, Bluhm BA (2004) In situ observations on the distribution and behavior of amphipods and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) under the sea ice of the high Arctic Canadian Basin. Polar Biology 27:595‑603

Bluhm BA, Bechtel, PJ (2003) The potential fate and effects of seafood processing wastes dumped at sea: A review. In Bechtel PJ (ed) Advances in Seafood Byproducts: 2002 Conference Proceedings. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks: pp 121‑140

Gradinger R, Hopcroft R, Bluhm B, Iken K (2003) The hidden ocean: explorations under the ice of the western Arctic. A multidisciplinary project funded by the NOAA Ocean Exploration program. In Iken K, Konar B (eds)
Proceedings of the Arctic Biodiversity workshop: New Census of Marine Life initiative. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, M-26, Fairbanks, pp 85‑90

Bluhm BA, Beyer K, Niehoff, B (2002) Brain structure and histological features of lipofuscin in two Antarctic caridean decapods. Crustaceana 75:61‑76

Bluhm BA, Brey T (2001) Age determination in the Antarctic shrimp Notocrangon antarcticus (Pfeffer, 1887) (Crustacea: Decapoda) using the autofluorescent pigment lipofuscin. Marine Biology 138:247‑257

Bluhm BA, Brey T, Klages M (2001) The autofluorescent age pigment lipofuscin: key to age, growth and productivity of the Antarctic amphipod Waldeckia obesa (Chevreux, 1905). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 258:215‑235

Bluhm BA, Brey T, Klages M, Arntz WE (2001) Occurrence of the autofluorescent pigment lipofuscin in polar crustaceans and its potential as an age marker. Polar Biology 24:642‑649

Storch V, Bluhm BA, Arntz WE (2001) Microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the digestive system of three Antarctic shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea). Polar Biology 24:604‑614

Bluhm BA, Piepenburg D, v Juterzenka K (1998) Distribution, standing stock, growth, mortality and production of Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the northern Bering Sea. Polar Biology 20:325‑334

Current graduate committees

Co-Chair. Carlos Serratos – Temporal comparison of epibenthic community and food web structure in the southern Chukchi Sea between 2004‑2012 (M.S. Marine Biology, 2012‑present)

Co-Chair. Kyle Dilliplaine – Effects of Oil Entrainment and Migration in Sea Ice on Brine Channel Inhabiting Biota (M.S. Marine Biology, 2013‑present)

Committee member. Lauren Bell – Lower trophic level food web structure on the eastern Beaufort Sea slope (M.S. Marine Biology, 2012‑present)

Committee member. Lauren Divine– Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) trophic dynamics and stock characteristics in the US Arctic (Ph.D. Marine Biology, 2011‑present)

Committee member. Marissa Hajduk – An investigaton of meiofauna in the Chukchi Sea (M.S. Marine Biology) (2011‑present)

Committee member. Alexandra Ravelo – Epibenthic community variability in the northeastern Chukchi and central Beaufort Sea continental shelf (PhD Marine Biology, 2011‑present)

Bluhm in the News